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Mature- Maturity - Maturation    [ Biology ]
Synonym: Adult - Adulthood
Transitive and intransitive verb: To mature  (past matured, past participle matured, present participle maturing, 3rd person present singular matures)

Dictionary of botanic terminology
index of names

The maturity is the stage of development in which an organism has reached the age for reproduction or adulthood age

In biology the term mature describe a plant or animal having general characteristics that do not change with continued age and will not gain any additional complexity with further aging and is ready to reproduce. 
For a more detailed explanation see: Sexual maturity
  2) The maturity is also  the stage of development in which an organ, structure or cell has reached a full natural growth or development; "a mature cell" a mature seed etc.  
  3) In Botany the term mature describe a fully developed fruit, that has reached a ripe condition.

or maturation is a process in fruit that causes them to become more edible. In general, fruits get sweeter, less acidic, less green and softer as they ripen. 
After a process known as pollination the petals of the flower fall off , the ovary begins to expand and the ovule begins to develops into a seed. The ovary eventually comes to form, along with other parts of the flower in many cases, a structure surrounding the seed or seeds that is the fruit.
For a more detailed explanation see: Ripen





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